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貿易赤字創歷史新高,特朗普的“美國優先”大計遇挫

Natasha Bach 2019年03月20日

相關數據顯示,特朗普提出的美國優先政策雖然目標是消除貿易逆差,但并沒有達到預期的效果。

美國商務部于上月底公布,去年美國商品貿易赤字超過8910億美元,創史上最高紀錄。

特別是中美貿易領域,盡管特朗普政府為降低對中國商品的依賴加征了關稅,但去年美國對華貿易赤字仍然達到創紀錄的4190億美元。

與此同時,去年12月,美國的商品與服務貿易赤字11月環比大漲19%,增至598億美元,月度赤字額為十年來最高水平。

數據顯示,特朗普提出的美國優先政策雖然目標是消除貿易逆差,但并沒有達到預期的效果。去年美國的海外進口總值遠超出口總值,全年進口額增長了7.5%,出口額僅增長6.3%。

此外,特朗普在2017年年末推行的1.5萬億美元減稅政策進一步加劇了貿易逆差。美國政府不得不舉債負擔減稅的成本,其中一些資金來源就來自于海外投資者。

美聯儲去年為了對抗經濟過熱的預期共加息四次,推動美元匯率上升,刺激美國人購買相對廉價的海外商品。

去年美國已經是連續第三年貿易赤字擴大,還刷新了2006年創造的赤字紀錄。雖然特朗普可能會因此而擔憂,但很多經濟學家認為他的重點不應該放在削減貿易赤字上。經濟學家指出,赤字數據反映的并不僅是美國與外界貿易關系,而是多種經濟因素的綜合體現。(財富中文網)

譯者:Pessy

審校:夏林

The Commerce Department reported at the end of last month the U.S. posted a more than $891 billion merchandise trade deficit last year—the largest in the history of the country.

Significantly, the trade deficit with China hit a record $419 billion, despite a series of tariffs the administration imposed on Chinese goods to decrease reliance on imports.

Meanwhile, the overall goods and services deficit jumped 19% between November and December 2018, to $59.8 billion, the highest monthly trade deficit in 10 years.

The data shows that Trump’s America First policies to close the trade gap haven’t had their desired effect. Americans are importing far more from abroad than they are exporting—imports grew 7.5% while exports increased only 6.3%.

What’s more, Trump’s $1.5 trillion tax cut enacted in late 2017 served to further fuel the deficit. The government had to borrow to pay for the cut, and some of those dollars came from foreign investors.

Simultaneously, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates four times last year to offset fears of an overheating economy, thereby increasing the strength of the dollar and encouraging purchase of relatively inexpensive foreign goods.

This is the third consecutive year of increasing trade deficits, topping the previous record in 2006. But while that might be of concern for Trump, many economists disagree with his emphasis on reducing the deficit. They suggest such deficits are not a reflection of American trading relationships, but rather simply a reflection of a variety of economic forces.

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